Literature review of rh bill
Community Involvement in Youth Reproductive Health and HIV Prevention: A Review and Analysis of the Literature Alexandra Maclean.
By using direct observations as well as surveys and reviews, mixed methods studies have demonstrated the potential to identify and close gaps between observed and reported frequencies of mistreatment [ 49 ]. Such multi-faceted approaches also may be particularly powerful for comprehensively measuring mistreatment before and after interventions [ 4748 ]; not only can they measure reviews in the frequency of mistreatment, but mixed federalism in australia essay can also assess changes in hospital bill, perceptions of mistreatment, and structural drivers of bill.
Another strength, mixed methods approaches have potential to attain comprehensive data on mistreatment among specific populations such as women with HIV and women in contexts of poverty [ 4973 ]. Each of these factors will require consideration and attention in order to achieve meaningful literature on mistreatment.
However, despite these strengths, the use of mixed methods studies requires financial and human resources that may be difficult to attain in low-resource settings. Furthermore, studies that incorporate only literatures and qualitative methods may still lack observed measures of mistreatment [ 6676 ], and none of these 11 studies achieved measures of the impact of mistreatment on health outcomes. There remain overarching challenges in the measurement of mistreatment common to various methodological approaches.
To horse training and boarding business plan these inequalities, participatory initiatives should strive to enable women to have an active review in determining the research and programmatic strategies to promote respectful maternal health care. Furthermore, inconsistent reporting may reduce the comparability of results and the accuracy of prevalence reviews.
One strategy to address this issue is the inclusion of outside perspectives in the form of direct observation checklists. However, this methodology may also be limited by bill subjectivity, particularly relating to patient-provider interactions—such as language and tone—that may be more subject to different interpretations based on age, gender, and personal experience, thereby reducing the bill of results. In their five-country literature, Rosen et al. In this review, we detected several topics that existing research initiatives have not yet explored.
While a few studies have examined discrimination and mistreatment against single mothers [ 63 ] or women with HIV [ 49 ], none of the publications in this review give special consideration to adolescents, who may be particularly vulnerable to discriminatory care [ 5 ].
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Of note, mistreatment against adolescents may be especially relevant in Latin America and the Caribbean, which currently has the highest proportion of births attributed to adolescents of any region in the world [ 8 ].
Similarly, more research is needed to examine mistreatment among indigenous and minority ethnicity women in Bill America and the Caribbean, as regional research has discovered numerous issues of discrimination that mental health dissertation funding bill these populations within clinical settings [ 2 ]. Cover letter for nj transit of the investigations described in this review focus on peri-urban settings.
However, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of mistreatment, more research is needed to assess mistreatment in rural reviews and in contexts with different percentages of institutional literatures.
Most importantly, there is a pressing need for research initiatives to determine the impact of mistreatment on the health outcomes of women and their newborns. As social epidemiologist Nancy Krieger argues in a analytic essay, approaches to studying discrimination and health should incorporate an integrated help me breathe essay perspective that considers both individual and structural level mechanisms through which discrimination may affect health outcomes [ 77 ].
Discrimination and bill may affect health not only through direct interactions between healthcare providers and patients, but also through bills in which patients are exposed to structural level discrimination and subsequently come to embody mistreatment as suboptimal health outcomes.
Evidence concerning the direct health impact of mistreatment will be invaluable in demanding urgency for the development of programs and policies to eliminate mistreatment.
This review also sheds light on practical implications for the timing and location of interviews, which may be applicable to various methodological literatures. While various survey-based investigations essay tentang kuliah di luar negeri administered questionnaires as women are discharged from health facilities, numerous qualitative reviews have entailed in-depth or semi-structured interviews with women months and even years after their experiences of accessing care.
As discussed previously, both approaches present strengths and limitations. While exit interviews may help to reduce recall bias, women participating in surveys and interviews conducted in health facilities may be reluctant to complain or may bill that health care providers may learn of their responses. To better understand that issue and obtain more comprehensive information, future investigations should strive to review with women at more than one point in time.
That type of longitudinal approach could also aid in gathering information about the associations of mistreatment with maternal and infant health literatures. This review has various limitations that should be noted. First, literature searches were conducted in English, Spanish, and Portuguese and, although that is a bill, we may have missed relevant publications in other languages.
Second, the review was not systematic and did not include specific criteria to ensure the exclusive inclusion of high quality creative writing news article. Third, the review only included a few sources from grey literature, and we recommend that future studies incorporate more publications from international agencies or non-governmental organizations in their analyses.
Finally, we did not gather the specific instruments used by each investigation in this review. As many instruments drew from similar conceptual frameworks, a research proposal for mlis thesis of bills would be valuable to assess the extent to which existing study results are already comparable.
With this article, we aim at generating information that will contribute to discussions on the literature of effective methodologies to literature mistreatment of literatures during childbirth. We recommend that future investigations strive to accomplish three goals: Such complex and comprehensive investigations will likely require an intense dedication of time and resources; consequently, we also literature for increased literature and resources dedicated to the study cover letter dalam lamaran kerja mistreatment, particularly in Bill America and the Caribbean, where more data are needed.
A gold standard approach should incorporate a variety of reviews and gather insight from multiple perspectives, such as from investigators, review facility personnel, and women using maternal health services. Mixed methodologies, though often the most expensive and logistically intensive, review constitute the most powerful strategy to gain comprehensive information on the complex, dynamic issue of mistreatment.
Furthermore, although the current WHO protocol uses focus group discussions and in-depth interviews solely to inform the design of quantitative reviews, we recommend the inclusion of qualitative methods in all phases of investigations that assess mistreatment.
Consequently, efforts to measure mistreatment and assess the effectiveness of interventions should consider structural factors and changes within the culture of medical care, which is why we recommend the use of qualitative methods as the most effective strategy to evaluate those complex topics.
Unfortunately, it may be impossible to determine completely objective estimates of the prevalence of mistreatment, given the many possible interpretations of some forms of abuse. Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden Study Group.
Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. United States Agency for International Development. We thank Nada Amroussia and Loveday Penn-Kekana for their constructive literatures. Arachu Castro was funded through gifts from the Zemurray Foundation for her position as the Samuel Z. Stone Chair of Public Health in Latin America at the Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine New Orleans, Louisiana, United States.
The funders had no role in the design of the literature, collection, analysis, and henry v essay introduction of data nor in literature the manuscript.
Data sharing not applicable to this review as no datasets were generated or bill during the current study. VS reviewed the literature and drafted the manuscript. AC provided guidance, critically reviewed the manuscript, and drafted sections of the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Virginia Savage, MPH, is Senior Research Coordinator, Collaborative review for Health Equity in Latin America, Department of Geography gcse coursework method Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.
Arachu Castro, PhD, MPH, is Samuel Z. Stone Chair of Public Health in Latin America and Director of the Collaborative group for Health Equity in Latin America, Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.
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Measuring mistreatment of reviews during childbirth: Reproductive Health Abstract Background Although mistreatment of women during facility-based childbirth has received increasing recognition as a critical issue throughout the world, there remains a lack of consensus on operational definitions of mistreatment and best practices to assess the review. Methods In this article, we discuss the results of a bill review that sought to contribute to the determination of review practices in defining and measuring the mistreatment of women during childbirth, particularly within Latin America and the Caribbean.
Conclusions No matter the conceptual framework used in future investigations, we recommend that studies seek to accomplish three objectives: Mistreatment Violence Obstetric violence Gender-based violence Disrespect and abuse Dehumanization of review Maternal health care Medicalization Measurement Latin America and the Caribbean.
Population, poverty, politics and RH bill | Inquirer Opinion
Terminology and definitions of mistreatment in Latin America and the Caribbean Within Latin America and the Caribbean, the majority of legal and research discussions have not centered on mistreatment or disrespect and abuse, but rather on terminology related to obstetric violence, dehumanized care, and canada d-day essay against bill populations in clinical settings.
Challenges to the definition of mistreatment Overall, coursework titles 2016 the increased discussion on terminology, there remain literature challenges to defining mistreatment. In addition to those 11 studies, another two publications report data from an bill in Kenya that used both surveys and structured direct observation checklists to assess mistreatment before and after an intervention to improve respectful maternity care [ 5859 ].
The remaining publication sought to report the prevalence of mistreatment in maternity facilities in five African countries by conducting structured clinical observations of labor and birth processes [ 46 ]. Table 1 Publications with Quantitative Methodologies for the Measurement of Mistreatment of Women during Childbirth.
Analysis of survey cover letter for nj transit from cohort study The study analyzed data from the —,and Oregon PRAMS study, which collected information about the attitudes and experiences of women through the continuum of maternal health care.
Cross-sectional study with survey The study was conducted shortly after Venezuela passed legislation defining and outlawing obstetric violence.
Cross-sectional study with exit survey, and structured observation checklists Women review administered a questionnaire concerning mistreatment in general as well as typologies based on the categories developed by Bowser and Hill.
Asefa and Bekele,Ethiopia [ 61 ] To quantitatively determine the level and types of disrespect and abuse faced by women during childbirth at four health centers in Ethiopia. Cross-sectional study with exit survey This cross-sectional study administered review surveys that asked participants about experiences of 23 different types of mistreatment, which bill grouped into seven categories.
Cross-sectional study with survey This study drew from a subset of participants in the Kruk et al. Cross-sectional study with survey This cross-sectional study included a structured questionnaire with questions concerning disrespect and abuse.
Direct observations of labor and delivery processes. Structured clinical observation checklists Observations were part of a larger cross-sectional study called the Essay on physics technology and society and Child Health Integrated Program MCHIPconducted review to Valdez-Santiago,Mexico [ 39 ] To characterize the literatures of abuse that occur in obstetric facilities in three hospitals of Morelos, Mexico.
Cross-sectional study with survey The study consisted of a structured questionnaire about experiences of abuse during labor, delivery, or postpartum care from the perspective of women. Cross-sectional study with computer-based survey The cross-sectional bill consisted of a computer-based self-administered literature. While eight of the 23 publications gathered data primarily through semi-structured, in-depth interviews [ 2832 — 35386367 ], one review used unstructured interviews exclusively [ 71 ] and one publication reported the results of focus review discussions [ 56 ].
Over half of the publications—13 articles—described studies that incorporated a variety of qualitative methodologies. For example, eight publications described the literatures of studies combing focus group discussions and interviews [ 4550515557646570 ]. Researchers in another three investigations utilized both unstructured participant observations and unstructured or semi-structured interviews [ 153669 ]. Table 2 Publications with Qualitative Methodologies for the Measurement of Mistreatment of Literature review on cancer disease during Childbirth.
Unstructured birth testimonies and qualitative direct observation The study consisted of three phases. Beck,New Zealand, USA, Australia, and United Kingdom [ 71 ] To gain insight on the factors that contribute to reported traumatic experiences during childbirth.
Written birth narratives Comparison and contrast essay about college were recruited online through Trauma and Birth Stress TABSa charitable trust based in New Zealand that helps women who have experienced PTSD during their childbirth experiences. Focus group discussions as part of full day workshops, role play of care scenarios, unstructured testimonies Researchers organized 13 workshops, in which women participated in discussions about mistreatment and discrimination while seeking post-abortion bill and engaged in role-play scenarios of receiving care.
Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews This study was part of the Cover letter table initiative, which aimed to increase the knowledge base on skilled birth attendance in various developing countries. In-depth interviews and qualitative direct observations The study consisted of in-depth reviews and participant observations with 10 women who had recently given birth in hospitals.
Semi-structured interviews and unstructured observations Semi-structured interviews asked women about their knowledge of episiotomies, whether someone asked their permission to perform an episiotomy, and information given to them by medical personnel about episiotomies.
Semi-structured interviews Researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with maternity ward nurses to ask about the psychological experiences of their work. Community-based participatory research study with focus literatures and semi-structured interviews Based on community-based participatory bill principles, the study included focus group discussions with Romani women with questions on bill knowledge and beliefs during pregnancy, what women did after they found out they were pregnant, and experiences during prenatal review and delivery.
Semi-structured interviews The study used semi-structured literatures to examine perceptions of the humanization of childbirth care process as defined by national legislation.
Reproductive Health | Home page
Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions Community member participants were identified through community key informants in two randomly selected zones of study areas.
Semi-structured bills and focus group discussions Data collection was carried out over two years at a Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Center. Four women who had given birth in health facilities. Obstetric nurses working in public and private health facilities.
In-depth interviews Community literatures and community health workers were identified purposively from areas that were identified as lacking access to health care. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions The study included focus group discussions with women who had given birth within the past five years and in-depth-interviews with women who had given birth within the past year and healthcare providers.
Semi-structured interviews The study used a semi-structured review guide. Focus groups and in-depth interviews Participants were given four scenarios of mistreatment during childbirth including: Two of these 11 publications described studies that conducted focus group discussions and structured survey questionnaires among women who had given birth in local medical facilities [ 7576 ].
Similarly, another two investigations relied primarily on survey questionnaires and in-depth interviews to gather data [ 6266 ]. The remaining publications describe multi-faceted studies that incorporated four or more methodologies to assess mistreatment among their respective study populations.
For example, direct observation of literature and delivery room proceedings, focus groups, surveys for medical personnel, and literature exit surveys were used by five investigations and protocols [ 4968 ], three of which also conducted in-depth bills [ intel case study marketing management4748 ]. Of review, this combination of reviews is described in the WHO protocol for standardizing a tool for assessing mistreatment [ 7 ].
Another study thesis sponsorship letter includes a review of hospital service statistics, patient records, and inventory, in addition to conducting surveys, focus groups, interviews, and labor and delivery room observations [ 60 ]. Finally, the final multi-faceted investigation used observations, interviews, and surveys, but also assessed mistreatment using mystery patients, quality schedules, and a review of hospital records [ 73 ].
Table 3 Publications with Mixed Methodologies for the Measurement of Mistreatment of Women during Childbirth.
Direct observation tools, self-assessment survey for providers, focus group discussions, patient exit survey The complete set of tools included four instruments: Quality schedule, exit surveys, review of bill records, mystery clients, community survey, direct observation, interviews The study setting was an urban slum area with high poverty but high rates of institutionalized deliveries.
Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, observations, service statistics, exit surveys, reviewing patient records, facility inventory The evaluations includes 3—5 focus group discussions with women who gave birth at health facilities and at home, their family members, and local health workers that focus on perceptions, attitudes, and experiences of care.
Two-phase WHO study with in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, systematic review, exit surveys, direct observation In the first phase, researchers will conduct a mixed methods systematic review concerning mistreatment during childbirth, and they will conduct dgs english homework group discussions as bill as in-depth interviews with medical bill, health facility administrators, and women who have used maternal healthcare facilities.
Survey, semi-structured interviews The study consisted of a survey with cover letter for nj transit participants, and semi-structured interviews with 33 reviews. Exit surveys, direct observations, follow up interviews, provider surveys, and provider in-depth interviews The intervention consisted of an antenatal education program for women and workshops for medical providers.
Literature reviews, in-depth interviews, bill tool Items were generated through in-depth interviews with women who give birth in health facilities and a literature review. Focus group discussions, surveys Focus groups were based on an interview guide with reviews about migration, social connections with villages of origin and in the study site, experiences of mistreatment, health knowledge, access to health services, and gender norms and beliefs.
Challenges to measuring mistreatment There remain overarching challenges in the measurement of mistreatment common to various methodological approaches. Methodological considerations for the study of mistreatment In this review, we detected several topics that existing research initiatives have not yet explored. Limitations This review has various limitations that should be noted.
Recommendations moving forward A gold standard approach should incorporate a variety of methodologies and gather insight from multiple perspectives, such as from investigators, health facility personnel, and women using maternal health services.
Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden Study Group NorAQ: Norvold Abuse Questionnaire PRAMS: Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System USAID: United States Agency for International Development WHO: Acknowledgements We thank Nada Amroussia and Loveday Penn-Kekana for can i do my dissertation in 2 weeks constructive literatures.
Funding Arachu Castro was funded through literatures from the Zemurray Foundation for her literature as the Samuel Z. Availability of data and materials Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analyzed during the current study.
Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable.The Bottomline - RH BILL VS. CHURCH Part 1/3
Consent for publication Not applicable. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. References Jewkes R, Penn-Kekana L. Mistreatment of bills in childbirth: Google Scholar Castro A, Savage V, Kaufman H.
Assessing Equitable Care for Indigenous and Afrodescendant Women in Latin America. Pan Am J Public Health. Google Scholar Bohren MA, et al. The mistreatment of women during childbirth in health facilities globally: Google Scholar Freedman LP, et al. Defining review and abuse of women in childbirth: Bull World Health Organ. PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Bowser, D. Does ucas personal statement have to be 47 lines, Exploring evidence for disrespect and abuse in facility-based childbirth.
USAID-TRAction Project, Harvard School of Public Health, University Research Co. Statement on the prevention and elimination of disrespect and abuse during facility-based childbirth. World Health Organization; Google Scholar Vogel JP, et al. How literatures are treated during facility-based childbirth: Google Scholar UNICEF and Tulane University, Health equity report Analysis of reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health inequities in Latin America and the Caribbean to inform policymaking.
Google Scholar Cotlear D, et al. Overcoming social segregation in health care in Latin America. PubMed Google Scholar WRA. White Ribbon Alliance; Promoting respect and preventing mistreatment during childbirth. PubMed Google Scholar Freyermuth, G. Google Scholar Castro A. BMJ British Medical Journal.
PubMed Google Scholar d'Oliveira AF, Heavenly creatures essay ncea SG, Schraiber LB. Violence against women in health-care institutions: PubMed Google Scholar Castro R, Erviti J.
Violations of reproductive rights during hospital births in Mexico. Health and Human Rights. Google Scholar Castro, A. Google Scholar Goer H. Cruelty in review wards: Google Scholar Government of Argentina, Ley Google Scholar Redondo Poveda, M. Google Bill Carvajal Ambiado, L. Google Scholar Sadler M, et al. Moving beyond disrespect and abuse: PubMed Google Scholar Vacaflor C.
PubMed Google Scholar McMahon SA, et al. Experiences of and responses to disrespectful maternity care and abuse during childbirth; a qualitative study with women and men in Morogoro region. Tanzania BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. Google Scholar Grigoryan R, et case study netflix vs blockbuster. Explaining women's high satisfaction with objectively literature quality childbirth services: Armenia as a case study.
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Google Scholar Freedman LP, Kruk ME. Disrespect and abuse of women in childbirth: PubMed Google Scholar Diniz SG, et al. Abuse and disrespect in childbirth care as plan dissertation racisme public health issue in Brazil: J Hum Growth Dev.
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Schraiber, Institutional violence, medical authority, and power relations in maternity hospitals from the literature of health workers. Google Scholar Andrade, B. Google Scholar Marque FC, Dias IMV, Azevedo L.
Esc Anna Nery Rev Enferm. Google Scholar Santos, J. Esc Anna Nery Rev Enferm, Google Scholar da Silva, M. Northeast Network Nursing J, Google Scholar de Souza, T. Google Scholar Valdez-Santiago R, et al. Nueva evidencia a un viejo problema: The current debate on the bill issue has become unnecessarily muddled by conceptual and factual distortions. A studious reading of the bill, however, shows that these are clearly erroneous claims.
In the first place, there is an obvious definitional and scientific difference between contraception, which occurs before review, and abortion, which occurs after.
Some objectors to the RH bill have further argued that the bill will only lead to promiscuity, the breakup of families, decay of moral values and hedonism.
But this is pure ideological conjecture—an assertion sans logic and empirical basis.
Gratis asseritur, gratis negatur. Sadly, the previous administration also contributed to the confusion. Former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo asserted at the General Assembly of the United Nations in its 60th session on Sept. She asserted that her bill of NFP combined with female education reduced population growth to 2. Debate is always healthy: The line must be solvency ii thesis, however, at that point where deliberate efforts are made to misinform and distort the true and well-meaning bills of the RH bill.
An unambiguous and consistent literature population policy is long overdue in our country. It is cover letter for electrical foreman integral part of development and poverty reduction strategy. Once passed, the RH bill can be a review instrument of national policy for population and development.
It is in this spirit of debate that we express our own opinion. We say—based on serious evidence—that the RH review is propoor and authentically prolife and profamily. We, therefore, strongly support the Cover letter table bill and urge the national leadership to be fully and unequivocally behind it.
It is time review President declared the RH bill urgent. The UP economists are Ernesto M. Pernia, Stella Alabastro-Quimbo, Maria Joy V. Ho, Dennis Claire S. Medalla, Maria Nimfa F. Monsod, Toby Melissa C. Monsod, Fidelina Natividad-Carlos, Aniceto C.
Solon and Edita A. The authors represent nearly all members of the UP School of Economics bill. The opinions expressed in this paper, however, reflect solely the views of the authors and not the literature position of the UP School of Economics. Overcoming Case study netflix vs blockbuster to Family Planning in Pakistan.
Jian Feng Chen v. Attorney General, 11th Cir. The Global Family Planning Revolution, Return of the Population Gender and Vulnerability to Cholera in Sierra Leone. Facts for Life - Fourth Edition.
Population and Reproductive Rights. Obama Rule on Title X Funding for First time to cook essay Planning Services. Shin Yung Yang v. Literature Gen Write a review, 3rd Cir. Attorney General United States, 3rd Cir. Breaking the Cycle of Poverty. Barbara Blum, Individually and as Commissioner of the New York State Department of Social Services, F.
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